The Galileo spacecraft imaged Ida's tiny moon for the first time in 1993. It is based upon the shape model of Ida and Dactyl (120 to 180 miles) in diameter was smashed relatively recently -- at The most fascinating feature is its diameter, which happens to be less than one mile. Galileo was in the plane of Dactyl's orbit when most of the images were taken, which made determining its exact orbit difficult. Their albedos and reflection spectra are very similar. The second of the two asteroids which Galileo encountered en route to Jupiter, Ida was discovered to have something different: its own satellite! Get the best of Sporcle when you Go Orange.This ad-free experience offers more features, more stats, and more fun while also helping to support Sporcle. It has a period a group of irregular moons orbiting Saturn at similar time periods. Ida was discovered by Johann Palisa on September 29, 1884.  Ida's irregular shape is responsible for the asteroid's very uneven gravitational field.  Ida was named by Moriz von Kuffner, a Viennese brewer and amateur astronomer. Acmon is the largest crater in the above image, and Celmis is near the bottom of the image, mostly obscured in shadow. The discovery that one out of two asteroids observed up close is in fact a binary system has reinvigorated an old debate about the frequency of binary asteroids. Asteroid 243 Ida is about 56 x 24 x 21 kilometers (35 x 15 x 13 miles) in size. According to the laws of celestial mechanics, such  The weathering of Ida's surface revealed another detail about its composition: the reflection spectra of freshly exposed parts of the surface resembled that of OC meteorites, but the older regions matched the spectra of S-type asteroids. It orbits Ida at approximately 90 km. The visibility of the moon's dark limb has provided valuable information on the size and shape of the tiny moon, which measures about 1.2 x 1.4 x1.6 kilometers (0.75 x 0.87 x 1 mile). This image has been assessed under the valued image criteria and is considered the most valued image on Commons within the scope: Diagram of the moon size comparisons.You can see its nomination here. 28, 1993, about 3.5 minutes before the spacecraft made its close  Assuming that its composition is similar to OC meteorites, which range in density from 3.48 to 3.64 g/cm3, Ida would have a porosity of 11–42%.  Dactyl's craters may contain central peaks, unlike those found on Ida. Ida's moon Dactyl was discovered by mission member Ann Harch in images returned from Galileo. It was discovered on 29 September 1884 by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at Vienna Observatory and named after a nymph from Greek mythology. A perhaps controversial decision to select a moon of an ex-planet, but an interesting moon all the same! than twice as large as Gaspra. It may take some Ida is placed by scientists in the S class (stony or stony iron practice to see the images in stereo. 243 Ida & Dactyl.  Ejecta blocks constitute the largest pieces of the regolith. It is irregularly shaped and elongated, apparently composed of two large objects connected together. Ida's age is somewhat many degraded craters larger than any seen on Gaspra.  The calculated maximum moment of inertia of a uniformly dense object the same shape as Ida coincides with the spin axis of the asteroid.  Mission planners delayed the decision to attempt a flyby until they were certain that this would leave the spacecraft enough propellant to complete its Jupiter mission.  Changing Galileo's trajectory to approach Ida required that it consume 34 kg (75 lb) of propellant. An asteroid called Ida takes up most of the space, and Dactyl is that teensy little dot on the right. James A. The tiny moon is about 1.2 by 1.4 by 1.6 km (0.75 by 0.87 by 1 mile) across . least considerably after the solar system formed some 4.5 billion years  At least six craters form a linear chain, suggesting that it was caused by locally produced debris, possibly ejected from Ida. The Eos and Koronis families ... are entirely of type S, which is rare at their heliocentric distances ... Nearly a month after a successful photo session, the Galileo spacecraft last week finished radioing to Earth a high-resolution portrait of the second asteroid ever to be imaged from space. ... and Ida with moon Dactyl. Its orbital period is 4.84 years, and its rotation period is 4.63 hours.  Dactyl may have suffered a major impact around 100 million years ago, which reduced its size..  Olivine and pyroxene were detected on Ida by Galileo. The south pole is It was discovered in images taken by the Galileo spacecraft during its flyby in 1993. Dactyl – The Satellite Moon. And Ida's moon Dactyl was only 90 kilometers away from the parent asteroid when it was photographed. is a captured object, something created completely separately Ida is covered by a thick layer of regolith, loose debris that obscures the solid rock beneath. Some rock in Ida's core may have been fractured below the large craters Mammoth, Lascaux, and Undara. Other mythological accounts say that the Dactyli were Ida's children by  Like Ida, Dactyl's surface exhibits saturation cratering. bottom image the highest. unknown moon at a range of about 3,900 kilometers (2,400 miles), just the right.  Estimates of Ida's density are constrained to less than 3.2 g/cm3 by the long-term stability of Dactyl's orbit. Ida is the large object to the left and Dactyl is the small object to Privacy Statement. the page close to your face, relax your eyes as if you were looking in As an Hall III. The image Both of these theories present difficulties that are unresolved at this time.  It was named by the International Astronomical Union in 1994, for the mythological dactyls who inhabited Mount Ida on the island of Crete. Dactyl is the first natural satellite of an asteroid ever discovered and photographed. Alternatively, it is possible that Ida was hit by a smaller object even  This all but rules out a stony-iron composition; were Ida made of 5 g/cm3 iron- and nickel-rich material, it would have to contain more than 40% empty space. These images provided the first direct confirmation of an asteroid moon.  Like Ida, its average temperature is about 200 K (−73 °C; −100 °F).. ... Earth's Moon, of course, is covered in the book with highly detailed maps. How Ida Got Its Name Ida was named by Moriz von Kuffner, a Viennese brewer and amateur astronomer, after a nymph in Greek mythology who was entrusted to care for … , Ida's rotation period is 4.63 hours (roughly 5 hours), making it one of the fastest rotating asteroids yet discovered. Then we move outward to the moons of Mars, then on to many of the more notable asteroid moons, and finally to a list of less-notable ones. Dactyl (right) is about 1.6 x 1.2 km, surprisingly round for such a small body. limb). mostly gray. , Ida was visited in 1993 by the Jupiter-bound space probe Galileo. Dactyl Dark Side Illuminated by Idashine Early View of Dactyl Images ... this frame fortuitously captured the previously unknown moon at a range of about 3,900 kilometers (2,400 miles), just over 4 minutes before the spacecraft's closest approach to Ida.  Its gravitational field produces an acceleration of about 0.3 to 1.1 cm/s2 over its surface. This view of the asteroid 243 Ida was acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Although Dactyl appears to be next to Ida, it is actually  This area attracts debris due to Ida's irregular gravitational field. Dactyl is made more or less from the same kind of material as Ida.  However, it may have formed more recently, perhaps as ejecta from a large impact on Ida. The top image pair is the lowest resolution and the Ida, the first known moon of an asteroid, is the tiny dot to the right of the asteroid Dactyl in this enhanced-color image from the Galileo spacecraft. century. , Ida's interior probably contains some amount of impact-fractured rock, called megaregolith. Its origin is uncertain, but evidence from the flyby suggests that it originated as a fragment of the Koronis parent body.  This contrasts with Ida, which is covered by a deep layer of regolith. approach to the asteroid. Venus may have had a moon in the distant past, which collided with another object and then impacted Venus. (Courtesy NASA/JPL) Dactyl is the first natural satellite of an asteroid ever discovered and photographed. , Several major structures mark Ida's surface. Dactyl is a natural satellite that revolves around a Koronis asteroid, known as Asteroid 243 Ida, which is situated in the belt between Jupiter and Mars. over 4 minutes before the spacecraft's closest approach to Ida.  Galileo observed evidence of recent downslope regolith movement. believed to be in the dark side near the middle of the asteroid. Ida has an average diameter of 31.4 km (19.5 mi). other small body models, it is quite certain. It was the second asteroid visited by a spacecraft … Later telescopic observations categorized Ida as an S-type asteroid, the most numerous type in the inner asteroid belt. This was the first discovery of an asteroid having a moon, or a "binary asteroid". The camera fortuitously captured the previously , Ida's major craters are named after caves and lava tubes on Earth. Dactyl is only 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) in diameter, about 1/20 the size of Ida. It reaches up to 5262 kilometers / 3269 miles, and it is larger than the planet Mercury.  Its appearance changes over time through a process called space weathering.  The progenitor asteroid had partially differentiated, with heavier metals migrating to the core. Zeus. on the terminator is about 300 meters  Cratering has reached the saturation point, meaning that new impacts erase evidence of old ones, leaving the total crater count roughly the same. and photographed. The megaregolith layer of Ida extends between hundreds of meters below the surface to a few kilometers. infant Zeus after the nymph Ida hid and raised the god on the mountain. Its density has been estimated to be 0.87 by 1 mile) across. The chondrites fall naturally into five composition classes, of which three have very similar mineral contents, but different proportions of metal and silicates. Ida's surface appears heavily cratered and mostly gray, although minor color variations mark newly formed or uncovered areas. On August 28, 1993 Galileo came from Ida that happened to wander near the asteroid and be caught by its near the center of the asteroid and near the upper right-hand edge (the Orbits: Pluto.  In Greek mythology, Ida was a nymph of Crete who raised the god Zeus. Thank you for becoming a …  Ejecta blankets settle asymmetrically around their craters, but fast-moving ejecta that escapes from the asteroid is permanently lost. The images are from the sequence in which Ida's moon was originally discovered.  Ida takes 4.84089 years to complete one orbit. Its surface is heavily cratered suggesting that it has existed It was the second asteroid visited by a spacecraft and the first found to have a natural satellite. about 14 minutes before its closest approach to Ida at a range of about  Many observations of Ida were made in early 1993 by the US Naval Observatory in Flagstaff and the Oak Ridge Observatory. slightly in the foreground, closer to the spacecraft than Ida and is  It was his 45th asteroid discovery. It is a member of the Koronis family, which scientists spacecraft's camera. Dactyl and Ida share many characteristics, suggesting a common origin.  Its small size would make the formation of significant amounts of regolith impossible. Icarus (Or Saturn IIIXXXXXX), more commonly known As Saturn’s Small Shadow, is an moon located in Saturn’s Rings.  The other structure is a large indentation named Vienna Regio. NASA / JPL. At about 524 feet in diameter, Didymoon, which orbits the asteroid Didymos, is about as large as one of the great pyramids in Egypt. ago. This image shows three different stereo image pairs of Ida. clearly evident, indicating that Dactyl has suffered numerous collisions  About 95% of Ida's surface came into view of the probe during the flyby.  The composition of the interior has not been directly analyzed, but is assumed to be similar to OC material based on observed surface color changes and Ida's bulk density of 2.27–3.10 g/cm3. , Ida's reflection spectrum was measured on 16 September 1980 by astronomers David J. Tholen and Edward F. Tedesco as part of the eight-color asteroid survey (ECAS). The name is derived from the Dactyli, a group of its moon Dactyl transmitted to Earth from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. pairs will merge together to become one image.  Dactyl orbits in the prograde direction and is inclined about 8° to Ida's equator.  Ida is 2.35 times as long as it is wide, and a "waist" separates it into two geologically dissimilar halves.  Ida was the second asteroid, after Gaspra, to be imaged by a spacecraft. One is a prominent 40 km (25 mi) ridge named Townsend Dorsum that stretches 150 degrees around Ida's surface.  The discovery of Ida's moon Dactyl, the first confirmed satellite of an asteroid, provided additional insights into Ida's composition. meteorites).  Ida's axis of rotation precesses with a period of 77 thousand years, due to the gravity of the Sun acting upon the nonspherical shape of the asteroid. It is also low near the "waist" because the mass of the asteroid is concentrated in the two halves, away from this location.. craters on the upper left end of Ida, around the small bright crater  On 26 April 1994, the Hubble Space Telescope observed Ida for eight hours and was unable to spot Dactyl. The Dactyli protected the Print a small version of the image on a page, hold Aerodactyl's wings consist of a membrane running from the side of the body to the tip of an elongated finger. human vision; a natural color picture of this asteroid would appear Ida on the island of Crete. The Galileo flyby of Ida found that some S-types, particularly the Koronis family, could be the source of these meteorites.  They are distributed evenly around Ida, except for a protrusion north of crater Choukoutien which is smoother and less cratered. , Dactyl may have originated at the same time as Ida, from the disruption of the Koronis parent body. within 2,400 kilometers (1,500 miles) of 243 Ida, the second asteroid Asteroids with moons are not so uncommon: the two impact craters of the Nördlinger Ries and Steinheim in southern Germany were very probably caused by an asteroid with a diameter of 1500 metres and its 150 metre accompanying moon. The tiny moon, named Dactyl, is about one mile across, whilethe potato shaped Ida measures about 36 miles long and 14 miles wide.  The onboard imager observed Ida from a distance of 240,350 km (149,350 mi) to its closest approach of 2,390 km (1,490 mi). This view shows numerous craters, including Ida, minor planet designation 243 Ida, is an asteroid in the Koronis family of the asteroid belt. This color picture is made from images taken by the imaging system on the Galileo spacecraft about 14 minutes before its closest approach to Ida on August 28, 1993. asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter -- the 243rd asteroid to be Ida was discovered on 29 September 1884 by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at the Vienna Observatory. from smaller solar system debris during its history. The tiny moon is about 1.2 by 1.4 by 1.6 km (0.75 by , About 20 large (40–150 m across) ejecta blocks have been identified, embedded in Ida's regolith. They came from Cretan Ida – Heracles, Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas.  These comprised a high-resolution mosaic of the asteroid at a resolution of 31–38 m/pixel. Mean values at opposition from Earth Distance from Earth (equator, km) 378,000 Apparent diameter (seconds of arc) 1896 Apparent visual magnitude -12.74 * These represent mean apogee and perigee for the lunar orbit, and were used for …  This feature may have been filled in by debris, or blasted out of the asteroid by impacts. Ida is a typical asteroid belt object.  Because of this process, older regolith appears more red in color compared to freshly exposed material. Top: 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl as imaged by Galileo in 1993. However beautiful is the surface, scientists believe that it is what’s beneath the surface that makes it worthy of being a part of this list. , Ida is a member of the Koronis family of asteroid-belt asteroids. , Dactyl's orbit around Ida is not precisely known. Its orbit around Ida could not be determined with much accuracy, but the constraints of possible orbits allowed a rough determination of Ida's density and revealed that it is depleted of metallic minerals. The moon's observed dark side was just barely detectable by Galileo's camera; computer enhancement has made it easier to see in this picture.  An exception to the crater morphology is the fresh, asymmetric Fingal, which has a sharp boundary between the floor and wall on one side. Ida & Dactyl in Color discovered since the first one was found at the beginning of the 19th color in the violet than any area on this side of Ida. It was the first time a moon was discovered orbiting an asteroid. Dactyl between 2.2 and 2.9 grams per cubic centimeter. at ranges of 3,057 to 3,821 kilometers (1,900 to 2,375 miles) on August S-type asteroid, Ida is composed mostly of silicate rocks.  They are located near, but are not connected with, the craters Mammoth, Lascaux, and Kartchner. They were (Courtesy NASA/JPL) Galileo The range from the spacecraft was about 10,500 km. Views of the Solar System Copyright © 1997-2009 by Calvin J. Hamilton. , Ida is one of the most densely cratered bodies yet explored in the Solar System, and impacts have been the primary process shaping its surface. ever encountered by a spacecraft. This portrait was taken about 14 minutes before Galileo's The names Ida andDactyl are from Greek mythology. Overview.  Galileo recorded 47 images of Dactyl over an observation period of 5.5 hours in August 1993. When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Dactyls of Ida, who are the same as those called Curetes. At only a mile wide, Dactyl is the smallest moon in the solar system.  The ejecta from this collision is distributed discontinuously over Ida and is responsible for the large-scale color and albedo variations across its surface. This suggests a difference in the abundance of or composition of Dactyl was in the foreground, i.e., a little closer to the Galileo probe than Ida. The color is enhanced in the sense that and slightly below center. about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. Galileo's flyby of Ida (and its moon Dactyl) occurred on 28 August 1993 at a distance of about 2,400 km.  No prior missions had attempted such a flyby. When it comes to size, it is just a little small than one moon. See the picture above? Ida when an older, larger asteroid was shattered in a collision with Later telescopic observations categorized Ida as an S-type asteroid, the most numerous type in the inner asteroid belt. It was adapted by Phil Stooke and unlike The moon was named Dactyl. closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers Canvas Size: 16.40 x 12.30 inches plus an additional 1.5 inches of extra canvas on all 4 sides to allow for easy stretching and/or framingLicensor: StockTrek ImagesArtist: Elena Duvernay/Stocktrek Images by (Courtesy NASA/JPL) of rotation of 4 hours, 38 minutes. The stereo, three-dimensional view can been seen Dactyl shares many characteristics with Ida. by looking at the left image with the left eye and the right image Peter Thomas and his colleagues. velocity of 12.4 km/sec (28,000 mph). Ida's orbit lies between the planets Mars and Jupiter, like all main-belt asteroids. and Galileo were 441 million kilometers (274 million miles) from the Sun. All three contain abundant iron in three different forms (ferrous iron oxide in silicates, metallic iron, and ferrous sulfide), usually with all three abundant enough to be classified as potential ores. The little moon was discovered in 1993, when Galileo was passing through the asteroid belt on its way to Jupiter. The clawed hands at the bend of each wing allow it to grasp objects. This image is the most detailed picture of Dactyl taken by the Galileo Moons of the Solar System: From Giant Ganymede to Dainty Dactyl. High Resolution View of Dactyl Sep 12, 1996 This image is the most detailed picture of the recently discovered natural satellite of asteroid 243 Ida taken by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging camera during its encounter with the asteroid on August 28, 1993. Many other asteroids are now known to have moons.  Ida carried away insignificant amounts of this core material.  Based on computer simulations, Dactyl's pericenter must be more than about 65 km (40 mi) from Ida for it to remain in a stable orbit. Its encounters of the asteroids Gaspra and Ida were secondary to the Jupiter mission. Data returned from the flyby pointed to S-type asteroids as the source for the ordinary chondrite meteorites, the most common type found on the Earth's surface.  The reflection spectra measured by remote observations of S-type asteroids, however, did not match that of OC meteorites. the camera is sensitive to near-infrared wavelengths of light beyond  It is marked by more than a dozen craters with a diameter greater than 80 m (260 ft), indicating that the moon has suffered many collisions during its history.  Some blocks may have been ejected from the young crater Azzurra on the opposite side of the asteroid. 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl. Dactyl was found on 17 February 1994 by Galileo mission member Ann Harch, while examining delayed image downloads from the spacecraft.  The range of orbits generated by the simulations was narrowed down by the necessity of having the orbits pass through points at which Galileo observed Dactyl to be at 16:52:05 UT on 28 August 1993, about 90 km (56 mi) from Ida at longitude 85°. This color picture is made from images taken by the Galileo spacecraft The tiny moon is about 1.2 by 1.4 by 1.6 km (0.75 by 0.87 by 1 mile) across. File:243 ida.jpg. , Both of these discoveries—the space weathering effects and the low density—led to a new understanding about the relationship between S-type asteroids and OC meteorites. - OUTER SYSTEM REGION - ♃ Jupiter moons = 79. mythological beings who lived on Mount Ida.  The largest crater, Lascaux, is almost 12 km (7.5 mi) across. Springer, Sep 19, 2015 - Science - 297 pages.  Most of them are located within the craters Lascaux and Mammoth, but they may not have been produced there. The larger crater , The craters are simple in structure: bowl-shaped with no flat bottoms and no central peaks. (Copyright © 1997 by Calvin J. Hamilton)  Another significant crater is Afon, which marks Ida's prime meridian. , The data returned from the Galileo flybys of Gaspra and Ida, and the later NEAR Shoemaker asteroid mission, permitted the first study of asteroid geology.  It is covered with craters of all sizes and stages of degradation, and ranging in age from fresh to as old as Ida itself. The surface of Ida is covered in a blanket of pulverized rock, called regolith, about 50–100 m (160–330 ft) thick. Dactyl – Ida Asteroid . Ida, minor planet designation 243 Ida, is an asteroid in the Koronis family of the asteroid belt.  It is uncertain how long ago the disruption event occurred. gravitational field. The craters are 300 and 200 meters in diameter, respectively. The moon is truly striking, with dark lines all over it. The largest, boulder-sized, debris fragments are called ejecta blocks, several of which have been observed on the surface. The two largest imaged craters on Dactyl were named Acmon /ˈækmən/ and Celmis /ˈsɛlmɪs/, after two of the mythological dactyls. , Galileo's trajectory carried it into the asteroid belt twice on its way to Jupiter. There are brighter areas, appearing bluish in the picture, around  Some craters are arranged in chains. The tiny moon is … Icarus is located in the Koronis family in Saturn’s Rings. Area attracts debris due to Ida 's major craters are 300 and meters! The distant past, which happens to be homogeneous throughout its extent 8°! Origin is uncertain, but an interesting moon all the same gravitationally controlled despite its small size make. This is a member of the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene may some... Ida contains two major structures mark Ida 's surface by geological processes most numerous type in the asteroid. 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