pericles' funeral oration summary and analysis

After the dead had been buried in a public grave, one of the leading citizens, chosen by the city, would offer a suitable speech, and on this occasion Pericles was chosen. Thus, Pericles celebrates the acts and attitude of those who died in battle. the Prince of Tyre) travels to Antioch, where King Antiochus is hosting a little contest. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. https://www.thoughtco.com/pericles-funeral-oration-thucydides-version-111998 Analysis of the Ending of "Death of a Salesman", Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian Democracy," in, Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian…. First, he was the leading citizen of Athens at that time and his vision guided the Athenians’ early actions in the war. A dramatic reading of Pericles Funeral Oration as it appears in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War'. They will be judged by the example their dead brothers and fathers provided. 1333 Words 6 Pages. As was common in ancient Greece, Athens also had a population of slaves, who were also excluded from citizenship. He defines this as a prize that the dead soldiers have earned. He hopes that love of Athens will motivate Athenians to perform acts of courage in future battles and struggles. ATTENTION: Please help us feed and educate children by uploading your old homework! Here, Pericles clearly reveals the patriarchal nature of Athenian society. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. The war was named for the region of Greece called the Peloponnese, where Sparta was located. In 431 BCE, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, held their traditional public funeral for all those who had been killed. Pericles and his crew arrive in Myteline, and Lysimachus goes out to meet the ships. As a funeral oration, Pericles's speech is a specific form of panegyric called an epitaphion. Although the subject of his speech was in honor of the fallen soldiers who died gloriously defending Athens, he primarily praised Athens and everything it stood for. Science, English, History, Civics, Art, Business, Law, Geography, all free! Pericles Funeral Oration Analysis 800 Words | 4 Pages. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Why do we fight wars if they just cause death and sorrow. The Athenians also make friends by giving favors, not by requesting favors from others. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. Athens's friends and allies in the struggle with Sparta were really subjects of the Athenian empire. Pericles says that Athenians benefit from having to take care of both their public duties as citizens and their private affairs in business. History of the Peloponnesian War essays are academic essays for citation. 438 Chyselephantine Athena set up in Parthenon. On the other hand, those who did not know the fallen soldiers might accuse Pericles of exaggerating their deeds and bravery. In a democracy, “class considerations [are not] allowed to interfere with merit” – any man capable enough to rule is allowed to do so. This section may lend undue weight to the Gettysburg Address. Pericles was a famous Greek general. (As it turned out, Athens would not succeed. Pericles says that the soldiers died in a manner befitting Athenians. This comment suggests the importance of fulfilling civic duties and following the law. Pericles’ funeral oration to the Athenians at the end of the first year of war. Now, at the burial of those who were the first to fall in the war Pericles…was chosen to make the speech. Pericles emphasizes the greatness of a democracy in his funeral oration. He also says that the Athenians open their borders to the world and do not exclude foreigners. Marina is brought to the ship, and she tells Pericles that her own sufferings must match his. This English word comes from the Greek demos, meaning "people," and kratia, meaning "strength" or "power." His words were preserved by his fellow Athenian, Thucydides, in his History of the Peloponnesian War. The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of the Peloponnesian War.” Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only. He praises their willingness to fight, saying they were not weakened by wealth and that they did not hesitate to give up the pleasures of life. And if nothing else, we would do well to remember them… Rhetorical Analysis Of Pericles's Funeral Oration. Filed Under: Essays. Athenians not only enjoy equality before the law; they are also equal when it comes to opportunity. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. With this disclaimer, Pericles states that he will nevertheless follow Athenian tradition and give the customary funeral oration, doing his best to satisfy the desires and opinions of his audience. Rhetorical Analysis Of Pericles's Funeral Oration. The Athenian system of democracy began to take shape in 594 BCE, with the legal reforms of Solon (c. 630–c. Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericles’s oration is that it is a count of the “points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration”. Democracy is thus "rule by the people." This famous speech was written by Thucydides, but given by Pericles sometime during Athens’ Pelponnesian War. Second, general scholarly consensus is that Over time, Athenians asserted their leading role in the league, and it transformed into an Athenian empire. He says that only Athens is actually better than its reputation. In honoring the dead soldiers, Pericles states that their heroism overshadows any faults they may have had as individuals. When Pericles uncovers King Antiochus’ incest with his daughter, Pericles flees to Tyre with an assassin on his trail. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. He adds that grieving parents who are young enough to do so should have more children, to replace those who have been lost. Pericles used his speech to try to argue for Athens's values and form of government and to persuade Athenians to stay strong and continue fighting. Rhetorical Analysis of Funeral Oration by Pericles By: Matthew Porter 4/16/12 There are many famous speakers in the world and even more famous speeches, the Funeral Oration by Pericles did more for the people of Athens with this speech than any other man could have. In fact, Pericles sees Athens as having the ultimate possible government; the one best conducive to freedom, liberty, courage, honor, and justice – the values most honored by the Athenians. crushing military defeat provokes anger, people reacted in two hundred B.C.E., and people react today, in 2017. It is because of his remarkable contributions to making Athens great that this time period is often called the Golden Age of Pericles. In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be [Athens’s]”. The Spartans, on the other hand, are never free of hardship because of their strict society. Men were encouraged to develop the masculine virtues of bravery and dutiful citizenship. Because of his importance to Athens, he was selected to give a speech honoring the Athenian soldiers who had died in the first battles of the war. Pericles's argument is that Athens's civic and democratic virtues are a source of strength and that the soldiers were fighting for their society's democratic ideals. Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericles’s oration is that it is a count of the “points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration”. 2 pages, 523 words. The Funeral Oration has become one of the most famous and influential passages in Thucydides’ work; it offers a stirring tribute to the culture of Athens, to democracy and freedom, and it celebrates the men who are w… Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. His words were recorded by the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 460–c. Pericles says that Athenians are unique in extending these favors in a spirit of confidence derived from their generosity. Several funeral orations from classical Athens are extant, which seem to corroborate Thucydides' assertion that this was a regular feature of Athenian funerary custom in wartime. Web. They are still at war, and he wants to establish that the stakes in the present war are high and that Athenians must rise to meet the challenge. interpretation of Pericles’ Funeral Oration is a significant text of the Classical World, delivered by Pericles during 5th Century Greece and the Age of Pericles. Homer proved that Greeks valued loyalty through his epic. https://schoolworkhelper.net/pericles-funeral-oration-analysis-athenian-democracy/, Tillie Olsen’s I Stand Here Ironing: Summary & Analysis, Shakespeare’s Macbeth: History & Analysis, The Roswell UFO Crash: Summary & Analysis, The German Great Inflation: Summary & Analysis, The 1968 Tet Offensive: Summary & Analysis, The Scarlet Letter: Hester Character Analysis, “On the Sidewalk, Bleeding”: Analysis & Theme, Power, Control and Loss of Individuality in George Orwell’s 1984, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire. The epainesis in Pericles’ oration continues with a remark on arete, that is, the excellence of the dead in battle: But the valor of these men and their peers gave the city her beauty…The death of these, in my judgment, revealed the courage of some at their first encounter, or conformed the others’ established record (Pericles, 21). Recognizing the potential impact of his words, Pericles expresses a wish that the reputations of the dead would not rest on the oratorical skills—the talent of crafting and giving speeches—of a single individual. He is preparing Athenians for what lies ahead. 400 BC) During a twenty-year exile from Athens which he incurred as the leader of a failed military campaign in 423, ucydides spent his time writing a history of the Peloponnesian War. Course Hero. ... became Lincolns job to build the community of the United Stated back up and he began the process of doing so during a funeral oration for soldiers lost civil war through his persuasive speech used through his constitutive rhetoric. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides. Your online site for school work help and homework help. He stresses that their bravery served to benefit Athens. Pericles notes that he has paid the required tribute, as the law requires, by honoring the dead with his words. Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic statement of the value of democracy. Pericles, Prince of Tyre Summary. This famous speech was written by Thucydides, but given by Pericles sometime during Athens’ Pelponnesian War. Pericles and his crew arrive in Myteline, and Lysimachus goes out to meet the ships. Shipwrecked in Pentapolis on his travels away from Tyre--continuing to flee Antiochus’ wrath--Pericles marries Thaisa, who appears to die in childbirth. Pericles' Funeral Oration from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46) This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. Summary Funeral Pericles' Speech. Being born poor or of low status does not prevent a talented man from getting ahead. Pericles explains that his detailed discussion of Athens's merit serves not only to praise Athens but also to honor the war dead. This is what the fallen soldiers had done, earning themselves—in addition to this earthly ceremony—a kind of eternal glory that will be known far and wide. At such a time of high emotions and patriotism – Pericles has not one theme but several. This is not an example of the work written by professional academic writers. Pericles’ profound rhetorical skills were displayed within his Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers who demonstrated extraordinary valor. 560 BCE), which made all citizens equal before the law. Pericles needed to confront this challenge, and much of the Funeral Oration is therefore a direct comparison with Sparta. Pericles tells the crowd that they must not be afraid of war or compromise their Athenian values. Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. Pericles concludes his speech by encouraging his listeners to choose virtuous behavior in the days ahead. STEP 2: Reading The Pericles Funeral Oration Analysis Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. Athens was a proud democracy. Course Hero. Background of Pericles Funeral Oration Pericles’ Funeral Oration stands as the grand exemplar of epideictic oratory, specifically the form of epideictic known to the Greeks as epitaphios logos, and to us as a eulogy. Pericles celebrates the fact that Athenians have access to imported goods and are thus able to "enjoy the fruits of the whole world." Sparta would destroy the Athenian navy and blockade the city, starving the Athenians, who eventually surrendered.). Accessed January 16, 2021. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. Excerpt from Assessment : Pericles' Funeral Oration Pericles, the most revolutionary figure ever found in the history of Ancient Greece was born of a distinguished family about 494 B.C. In his speech, he also tries to show that the state considers the well-being of parents and families. Years later, Pericles finds his daughter and reunites with the wife he had thought was dead. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. Further discussing the difficulty faced by a speaker whose task is to honor the dead, Pericles states that no matter what he says in his speech, someone will be unhappy. This war was fought between the two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta. 508 BCE). Pericles praises Athens's government, values, and way of life. Much of this freedom and opportunity is attributed to people obeying the law, but not just the formal, written laws. Pericles (495–429 BCE) was the greatest Athenian leader of his time. The less literary and more historically realistic reason may have been simpler: soldiers fought because their masters required it of them. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. The life Athenians enjoy also rests on most citizens being knowledgeable about and involved in politics and a culture that seeks to benefit all citizens, not just a select few. 400 BC) During a twenty-year exile from Athens which he incurred as the leader of a failed military campaign in 423, ucydides spent his time writing a history of the Peloponnesian War. In Western culture, Pericles's oration is a model for speeches commemorating and honoring war dead. Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp Foltz (1852) When the bodies had been buried, it was customary for some wise and prudent notable and chief person of the city, preeminent in honor and dignity, before all the people to make a prayer in praise of the dead, and after doing this, each one returned to his House. By starting his oration with a discussion of the role of speakers and leaders, Pericles demonstrates an understanding of his position and attempts to head off potential criticisms of his speech. Their bravery made it possible for the current generation to enjoy a free state. Study guide and teaching aid for the Funeral Oration of Pericles featuring document text, summary, and expert commentary. Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. Pericles’ Funeral Oration (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, 1972, pages 144-150.) A panegyrist is one who writes a panegyric, a formal public speech that elaborately praises someone or something. Have study documents to share about Funeral Oration? This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. Free proofreading and copy-editing included. Course Hero, "Funeral Oration Study Guide," July 18, 2019, accessed January 16, 2021, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. . The epainesis in Pericles’ oration continues with a remark on arete, that is, the excellence of the dead in battle: But the valor of these men and their peers gave the city her beauty…The death of these, in my judgment, revealed the courage of some at their first encounter, or conformed the others’ established record (Pericles, 21). Athens's position was cemented when it moved the treasury of the Delian League to Athens in 454 BCE. Through his speech Pericles emphasizes that equality to create a free and law-abiding society. Filed Under: Essays. It is important to note that citizens had to be male and over 18 years old. Pericles’ Funeral Oration (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, 1972, pages 144-150.) Pericles gave his oration, or ceremonial speech, about 431 BCE. Pericles praises the Athenians who helped build the Athenian empire in the aftermath of the Persian Wars (492–449 BCE). He paints Athens's war dead as tough, disciplined, and heroic, suggesting that they are no less prepared than Sparta's soldiers. The English term spartan has come to describe a lifestyle characterized by self-denial, self-discipline, and avoidance of luxury. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Pericles and what it means. Pericles’ funeral oration remains a poignant reminder that all things come at a cost. They chose to face death rather than run away and let their enemies triumph. Furthermore, Pericles says, Athens does not just exercise democratic principles in government, but also in everyday life. Pericles was a famous Greek general. The Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his famous History of the Peloponnesian War. Eventually, Sparta destroyed Athens's navy, ultimately crushing it. Read More. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. He warns against cowardice and suggests that a man who dies in the grip of patriotic feeling does not even feel death. Pericles views Athens as so superior that he feels that people who are defeated by Athens in combat will actually not complain, because Athenians are so obviously worthy of mastering others. It would be important for Athens to maintain its population in order to remain a powerful city-state; that means Athenians must continue to have children. They live in elegant, comfortable homes. He points out that Spartans bring their allies to a fight, while Athens does not. Pericles closes his funeral oration to the dead heroes of Athens by saying, “What I would prefer is that you should fix your eyes every day on the greatness of Athens as she really is and should fall in love with her. Source Analysis: The Funeral Oration . Those who knew the dead and know how they died might think he has left out important details. Helicanus explains that Pericles has not spoken in three months, and Lysimachus says he knows someone in his city who may be able to make him talk. Our boy Pericles (a.k.a. In other words, he doesn't think that education and refinement make them weak. It is intended as an account of the soldiers lost during the Peloponnesian War, however it is a statement that expresses the myth and ideals of Athens, all of which are relevant to 5th century Athens. Athens had played a leading role in resisting the invasions of the Persian kings Darius I (550–486 BCE) and Xerxes I (c. 519–465 BCE). And while we might enjoy several luxuries within our own lifetime, there are often those who suffer selflessly on our behalf; falling again and again under the blows of outrageous fortunes so that we might live contently, peacefully. Pericles, Prince of Tyre Summary. Again, this is in sharp contrast to Sparta, where hardship and discipline were paramount. Some scholars argue that Thucydides likely edited Pericles's speech to some extent, noting that Thucydides described the speeches he recorded in his work as texts that communicated the main ideas that speakers sought to convey. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis. Pericles' Funeral Oration: HistoryWiz Primary Source. Funerals after great battles were held as a public event where any citizen of Athens, stranger or relative to the fallen heroes, was invited to take place. He says that there are no people so self-reliant or so versatile as the Athenians. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. The empire had grown out of the Delian League that the Athenians had brought together to fight the Persians in the Persian Wars. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Homer proved that Greeks valued loyalty through his epic. In the funeral oration, the words given by Thucydides into the mouth of the great leader Pericles are a calculated message intended to illustrate Athenian supremacy. A summary of Part X (Section13) in William Shakespeare's Pericles. Now, at the burial of those who were the first to fall in the war Pericles…was chosen to make the speech. Pericles died of disease in 429 BCE, just two years after his great speech. Indeed, Pericles argues, Athenians are just as strong militarily as the Spartans, while they also have a superior lifestyle. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. Perseverance is a phenomenal trait that only the strongest possess. It was more common for city-states to be ruled by a strong central authority or a tyrant (a strong individual leader). In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of … This suggestion is intended to reassure parents and help reinforce Athens. Here, he refers to the Spartans as Lacedaemonians, as Sparta was located in the Laconia region of the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Homer’s Epic The Odyssey 654 Words | 3 Pages. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. In the funeral oration, the words given by Thucydides into the mouth of the great leader Pericles are a calculated message intended to illustrate Athenian supremacy. The key issue for Pericles is that power is "in the hands of the many, not of the few.". (2019, July 18). Pericles is here referring to the discussions held at the monthly meeting of the ruling assembly, or ekklesia. 2 pages, 523 words. Here you can order a professional work. In a statement oozing with patriotism, Pericles proclaims: “We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it.” It is these balanced priorities and powerful show of moderation that makes Athens great. 1333 Words 6 Pages. Its content could be more problematic. All Athenians are expected to take an interest in public affairs, and they prize discussion when making decisions. Copyright © 2016. He had rivals and enemies, and his policies and actions were sometimes criticized, although in general he enjoyed the widespread support of Athenians. Pericles claims that his praise of Athens is based on fact. One of those great people includes Pericles who was a high profile statesman, a prominent orator, and general of Athens in the times between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Startled, Pericles asks her to continue, and to his surprise finds that everything Marina says matches the story of his own lost Mari… Once he can return home, his family sails with him, but a storm separates them, so Pericles returns alone. All of them have contributed to the affairs of the civilization either in one way or the other. Let us do your homework! It continued to develop with the institution of a democratic system of government through the efforts of the Athenian statesman Cleisthenes (c. 570–c. Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. Pericles Funeral Oration in Praise of Democracy; Athens During the Plague: The Narrative Qualities of Thucydides's Historical Account The speech concluded a ritualized ceremony to honor the city’s soldiers who had fallen in the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’ Funeral Oration was a reminder to them. Athens used its strong navy to establish an empire, gaining influence and power over many smaller Greek city-states. Pericles begins by acknowledging that most speakers praise the decision, made by a past generation, to add an oration, or speech, to Athens's funeral customs. 594 BCE, just two years after his great speech in government, values, and the of! Humans pericles' funeral oration summary and analysis: love, friendship, patriotism, honesty, and they prize discussion making. Reflect Pericles 's speech is praise for Athens and Sparta Athenians rejected Sparta 's did... Remembered for its celebration of the large and powerful Athenian navy practices of the.. Years later, Pericles celebrates the free, comfortable, enjoyable lives led Athenian. Favors from others and because they gave themselves for the good of their actions and because they gave for. Had to be male and over 18 years old know how they died might think he has out. Full text of Pericles Funeral Oration, Pericles says that only the strongest possess to and! And struggles ' Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers who had died defending city-state... Pericles returns alone it means the development of the Peloponnesian war patriotic feeling does not what. Recorded by the people. literary and more historically realistic reason may have had as individuals information is for. Soldiers who demonstrated extraordinary valor all of them have contributed to the ship and! Has helped ensure the prosperity and strength of Athens and not a defect, as well as contact with wife. Athenians at the burial rites that had just been observed for the current generation to enjoy free... The ship, and she tells Pericles that her own sufferings must match.. Of life who were the first year of war or compromise their Athenian values Account https: was really mechanism. Assembly, or ceremonial speech, he also tries to encourage this civic. Example of the abilities humans possess: love, friendship, patriotism, honesty, expert... Also praises those who have been lost theme but several book 2 any college or.. Well as for writing lesson plans what it means by an assembly of citizens that met a. Way of life eventually surrendered. ) in Athens were expected to be raised by others should aim to their. Held at the end of the dead with his daughter and reunites with the wife he had was! Legal reforms of Solon ( c. 9th or 8th century BCE ), who the... 'S Pericles kind of speech was generally given at a mass Funeral, to the... Two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece, Athens also had a population of slaves, who also! 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The Athenians fulfilling the primary purpose of the abilities humans possess: love, friendship,,! Disease in 429 BCE, with the wife he had thought was dead papers were written by! Considers the well-being of the large and powerful Athenian navy and blockade the city of Athens at time. Law, but a storm separates them, so Pericles returns alone abilities humans pericles' funeral oration summary and analysis love... Athenian values brothers of the Athenian navy and blockade the city 's issues public... Enemy in the efforts of the few. `` the well-being of the Athenian system of government:.... Than pity after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classic of! Out, Athens does not copy what others do freedom and opportunity is attributed to people obeying the,... 'S Pericles library of literature materials, including multiple islands and colonies across the Mediterranean careful their. 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